- Cathodic protection(CP) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell. A simple method of protection connects the metal to be protected to a more easily corroded "sacrificial metal" to act as the anode. The sacrificial metal then corrodes instead of the protected metal. For structures such as long pipelines, where passive galvanic cathodic protection is not adequate, an external DC electrical power source is used to provide sufficient current.
Control valves are valves used to control conditions such as flow, pressure, temperature, and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compare a "setpoint" to a "process variable" whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. Control Valve is also termed as the Final Control Element.
The opening or closing of control valves is usually done automatically by electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic actuators. Positioners are used to control the opening or closing of the actuator based on electric, or pneumatic signals. These control signals, traditionally based on 3-15psi (0.2-1.0bar), more common now are 4-20mA signals for industry, 0-10V for HVAC systems, and the introduction of "Smart" systems, HART, Fieldbus Foundation, and Profibus being the more common protocols. Some of the control valve available are Reverse Double-Ported Globe-Style Valve Body, Three-Way Valve with Balanced Valve Plug, Flanged Angle-Style Control Valve Body, Valve Body with Cage-Style Trim, Balanced Valve Plug, and Soft Seat.
A block and bleed manifold is a hydraulic manifold that combines one or more block/isolate valves, usually ball valves, and one or more bleed/vent valves, usually ball or needle valves, into one component, for interface with other components (pressure measurement transmitters, gauges, switches, etc.) of a hydraulic (fluid) system. The purpose of the block and bleed manifold is to isolate or block the flow of fluid in the system, so the fluid from upstream of the manifold does not reach other components of the system that are downstream, then bleed off or vent the remaining fluid from the system on the downstream side of the manifold. For example, a block and bleed manifold would be used to stop the flow of fluids to some component, then vent the fluid from that component’s side of the manifold, in order to effect some kind of work (maintenance/repair/replacement) on that component.A block and bleed manifold with one block valve and one bleed valve is also known as an isolation valve or block and bleed valve; a block and bleed manifold with multiple valves is also known as an isolation manifold.
Double Block and Bleed Valves replace existing traditional techniques employed by pipeline engineers to generate a double block and bleed configuration in the pipeline
- A well-planned preventive maintenance program is the key to dependable, long-life operation of motors and generators.In modern plant operations, unscheduled stoppage of production or long repair shutdowns are intolerable. The high cost of the resultant downtime eats deeply into profits. Although management probably realizes the value of a good preventive maintenance (PM) program, they sometimes resist.
- Covers basic pumping concepts. Describes required maintenance of packing and seals. Covers maintenance and overhaul of centrifugal pumps. Concludes with maintenance of rotary pumps.
- Bulk storage tank overfills are a common cause of product release and pollution at tank farms, terminals and refineries. Some overfills are small and easily contained, but the accumulation of product from repeated overfills or a single large spill can cause significant soil and ground water contamination. Throughout the bulk liquid storage industry, it is increasingly being viewed as “good practice” to provide some form of overfill prevention on all hazardous material storage tanks.
- Condition monitoring (or, colloquially, CM) is the process of monitoring a parameter of condition in machinery (vibration, temperature etc.), in order to identify a significant change which is indicative of a developing fault. It is a major component of predictive maintenance. The use of condition monitoring allows maintenance to be scheduled, or other actions to be taken to prevent failure and avoid its consequences. Condition monitoring has a unique benefit in that conditions that would shorten normal lifespan can be addressed before they develop into a major failure. Condition monitoring techniques are normally used on rotating equipment and other machinery (pumps, electric motors, internal combustion engines, presses), while periodic inspection using non-destructive testing techniques and fit for service (FFS) evaluation are used for stationary plant equipment such as steam boilers, piping and heat exchangers.